To start arduino programming go to web site arduino.cc and download arduino IDE software for linux. Choose linux 32 or 64 bit depend on your installed linux.
Extract downloaded archive.
Install it using root user (execute install.sh from extracted folder).
Open the IDE by searching arduino ide and click the icon (im using debian linux 9).
Open example named blink (it will blink built in led on uno board).
Connect your uno board to usb port and run dmesg command on root terminal to find which device is the uno board (mine is ttyUSB0). Give permission to device using chmod if necessary (chmod 777 /dev/ttyUSB0).
Upload blink program to your uno and choose your tty device.
This should make your uno onboard led on port 13 blinking.